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- Contribution of traceability towards attaining sustainability in the textile sector May 19, 2017 12:00 amAbstract Sustainability is a widely recognized concern and priority for healthy growth of the society and for preservation of the planet. Concerning this, textile sector has seen an unprecedented demand for sustainable products from the consumers, responding to which organizations have undertaken different initiatives. One of the major concerns in the textile sector is its complex supply chain networks and the involvement of numerous actors dealing with diverse raw materials and operations. The effective implementation of sustainability at the industrial scale would require the participation of all supply chain actors, along with an efficient traceability system to monitor and analyze different sustainability aspects. Furthermore, traceability is an integral part of the recycling process which contributes towards the sustainability. Therefore, the present article focuses on the contribution of traceable information towards attaining the sustainability in the textile sector. The three pillars of sustainability, namely, ecological, societal, and economic, are discussed for their relation and dependency on the traceability followed by an overview of the challenges in successful implementation of the traceability system, which is anticipated to shape the future research questions.
- Development of an efficient route for combined recycling of PET and cotton from mixed fabrics February 22, 2017 12:00 amAbstract Most textile waste is either incinerated or landfilled today, yet, the material could instead be recycled through chemical recycling to new high-quality textiles. A first important step is separation since chemical recycling of textiles requires pure streams. The focus of this paper is on the separation of cotton and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate), polyester) from mixed textiles, so called polycotton. Polycotton is one of the most common materials in service textiles used in sheets and towels at hospitals and hotels. A straightforward process using 5–15 wt% NaOH in water and temperature in the range between 70 and 90 °C for the hydrolysis of PET was evaluated on the lab-scale. In the process, the PET was degraded to terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Three product streams were generated from the process. First is the cotton; second, the TPA; and, third, the filtrate containing EG and the process chemicals. The end products and the extent of PET degradation were characterized using light microscopy, UV-spectroscopy, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the cotton cellulose degradation was evaluated by analyzing the intrinsic viscosity of the cotton cellulose. The findings show that with the addition of a phase transfer catalyst (benzyltributylammonium chloride (BTBAC)), PET hydrolysis in 10% NaOH solution at 90 °C can be completed within 40 min. Analysis of the degraded PET with NMR spectroscopy showed that no contaminants remained in the recovered TPA, and that the filtrate mainly contained EG and BTBAC (when added). The yield of the cotton cellulose was high, up to 97%, depending on how long the samples were treated. The findings also showed that the separation can be performed without the phase transfer catalyst; however, this requires longer treatment times, which results in more cellulose degradation.
- Dyeing studies and fastness properties of brown naphtoquinone colorant extracted from Juglans regia L on natural protein fiber using different metal salt mordants January 17, 2017 12:00 amAbstract In this study, wool fibers are dyed with a natural colorant extracted from walnut bark in presence and absence of mordants. The effect of aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and stannous chloride mordants on colorimetric and fastness properties of wool fibers was investigated. Juglone was identified as the main coloring component in walnut bark extract by UV visible and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with metallic mordants substantially improved the colorimetric and fastness properties of wool fibers dyed with walnut bark extract. Ferrous sulfate and stannous chloride mordanted wool fibers shows best results than potassium aluminum sulfate mordanted and unmordanted wool fibers. This is ascribed due to strong chelating power of ferrous sulfate and stannous chloride mordants.
- Sustainable and ethical manufacturing: a case study from handloom industry January 13, 2017 12:00 amAbstract Global fashion industry has bitterly evidenced the social and environmental implications associated with fast production cycles, overuse of resources, waste generation, environmental pollution and unethical labour conditions. Growing consumer awareness regarding social and environmental impacts of fashion products has led to create a new marketplace for sustainable and ethical products. This paper highlights craft practice as one of the potential avenues for achieving sustainability within the fashion industry. Through a case study drawn from handloom industry, this paper explores a manufacturing approach that is committed to fair-trade principles and designed to prevent waste. We argue that this study reveals a business model that could positively contribute towards generating employment opportunities and sustainable household income for the rural community. We conclude the paper by highlighting that this type of a fair trade and environmentally conscious manufacturing process could address the three pillars of sustainability: social, economic and environment. Findings of the study invite manufacturers to revisit and redesign current fashion production systems, especially when waste and labour issues are hindering the sustainability.
- Improving dyeability and antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis L on jute fabrics by chitosan pretreatment January 5, 2017 12:00 amAbstract This paper investigates the dyeing and antimicrobial properties of jute fiber with natural dye henna after treatment with biopolymer chitosan. The treatment was carried out by applying chitosan solution on the fiber followed by dyeing with henna dye. Then, the performance was assessed in terms of the depth of shade by measuring K/S value and colorfastness properties of chitosan-treated dyed fabric samples. It has been observed that chitosan-treated fabrics showed a higher depth of shade compared to untreated dyed samples. As far as colorfastness is concerned, the dyed samples with and without chitosan pretreatment exhibited almost similar dry rubbing fastness. However, chitosan-treated fabrics showed inferior fastness ratings for wet rubbing and washing, particularly for the fabrics with higher chitosan concentrations. Again, the experimental results demonstrated that the combination of chitosan and henna dye can significantly enhance the antibacterial activity of jute fiber against the organism Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These findings suggest that the application of chitosan and natural dye from henna onto jute fiber is an approach to get the desired dyeing and antibacterial property.
- Scope of using jute fiber for the reinforcement of concrete material December 1, 2016 12:00 amAbstract The natural jute fiber can be the effective material to reinforce concrete strength which will not only explore a way to improve the properties of concrete, it will also explore the use of jute and restrict the utilization of polymer which is environmentally detrimental. In Bangladesh, jute is locally available and, hence, less expensive. To achieve this goal, an experimental investigation of the compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths of Jute Fiber Reinforced Concrete Composites (JFRCC) has been conducted. Cylinders, prisms, and cubes of standard dimensions have been made to introduce jute fiber varying the mix ratio of the ingredients in concrete, water-cement ratio, and length and volume of fiber to know the effect of parameters as mentioned. Flexural, compressive, and tensile strength tests have been conducted on the prepared samples by appropriate testing apparatus according to standard specifications. The results of JFRCC were also compared to the plain concrete. The large cut length and higher content of reinforcing materials (jute fiber) result to the unfortunate tendency of balling formation and high porosity of composites followed by the degrading of mechanical properties of JFRCC in reference to plain concrete. But in the incorporation of short and low fiber content, an intact structure develops which enhances the mechanical properties of the same composite. It was also noted that all the remarkable increment values were found mostly in the presence of higher cement content. So it can be concluded that the presence of jute fiber with more cement content strengthens the concrete in greater extent.
- Eco-dyeing of wool with Rubia cordifolia root extract: Assessment of the effect of Acacia catechu as biomordant on color and fastness properties July 11, 2016 12:00 amAbstract In the present study, anthraquinone colorants were extracted from powdered Rubia cordifolia roots and applied on wool fiber. Acacia catechu is used as a biomordant, a replacement to metallic mordants, for wool dyeing, and the effect on color characteristics and fastness properties was assessed. Shades on wool of red tones with good to excellent color fastness properties were obtained. Pre-mordanting with A. catechu improved the overall color and fastness parameters, due to the maximum dye uptake. Auxochromic groups responsible for interaction of dye and wool were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of R. cordifolia extract. The surface morphology of dyed wool fiber was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for any changes on fiber after dyeing.
- An exploration of designers’ perspectives on human health and environmental impacts of interior textiles July 7, 2016 12:00 amAbstract Fast fashion and fast furnishings contribute to the unsustainability of the textile industry in multiple ways, and the deleterious impacts of fast furnishings, in particular, have encouraged some companies to embrace more holistic and sustainable approaches to interior textile design. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore designers’ perspectives on if and how decisions made during the design process for interior textiles may impact human health and the environment throughout the product life cycle, and if and how these decisions may be influenced by the engagement with and/or responsibilities toward stakeholders. This research was informed by multiple frameworks, including the design for the environment (DfE), product life cycle assessment (LCA), and stakeholder theory. Data were collected using an interpretive, qualitative research method that involved in-depth interviews with 12 US designers/design managers who specialize in the development of residential and/or commercial interior textiles. Findings revealed that participants demonstrated professional understanding of human health and environmental issues during the preliminary stages of the life cycle, including raw material selection, textile fabrication, and finishes and treatments, whereas understanding of such issues at the later stages of the life cycle (packaging and transportation, consumer care, and post use) tended to be more theoretical rather than strategic. Findings also revealed differences among designers employed by DfE-oriented companies and designers employed at more conventional companies with respect to their apparent understanding of how decisions made during the design process may impact human health and the environment throughout the product life cycle. This research contributes to our understanding of the role that designers may play in mitigating the negative impacts of interior textiles throughout the product life cycle. A limitation of this study is the size of the sample; conclusions are based upon the insights gained from 12 designers of interior textile products, and thus may not be generalizable to all designers/companies in the residential and/or commercial interior textile industry.
- Dyeing and fastness properties of Quercus robur with natural mordants on natural fibre June 24, 2016 12:00 amAbstract Dyeing potential of a natural dye extracted from Quercus robur L. (fruit cups) with a combination of Salix alba L. and Populus deltoides Bartram ex marsh (wood ash) mordants was studied on wool, cotton, silk and pashmina fabrics. Experiment was carried out in different combinations including and excluding mordants by adopting different mordanting methods. Dyeing performance was assessed in terms of dye absorption (%), Colour values (CIELAB), Colour strength (K/S), and fastness properties. The dye in combination with mordants showed significant importance and resulted in different shades on wool, silk and pashmina fabrics. However, the cotton fabric did not show much affinity for the dye and mordant and showed less affinity for the dye and mordants with lower values of colour quality and retention grades. Fastness properties of all dyed fabrics recorded excellent grades with slightly lower grades in unmordanted dyed samples.
- Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluent using chitosan-g-poly(butyl acrylate)/bentonite nanocomposite as an adsorbent May 21, 2016 12:00 amAbstract In the present era, due to industrial revolution in the developing countries like India, the ground water system has been largely polluted. Tannery effluent is a major source of aquatic pollution, and a large number of tanneries are scattered all over India particularly in Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This work deals with the removal of heavy metals chromium and lead and the reduction of the important physicochemical parameters like total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), total solids (TS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness, salinity, turbidity and electrical conductivity from the tannery wastewater by using chitosan-g-poly(butyl acrylate)/bentonite nanocomposite as an adsorbent. The batch system was used to conduct the biosorption experiments. The influence of different experimental parameters, such as contact time, pH and amount of adsorbent, was evaluated. The results showed that the prepared nanocomposite can be used efficiently for the treatment of tannery wastewater containing heavy metals.
- Public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico April 26, 2016 12:00 amAbstract The Mexican economy has been showing a continuous and arguably remarkable growth in the last decade, and it is expected that this strong economic growth is based on a balance between social equity, fiscal growth and environmental protection. This composite situation requires us to have a clear understanding of changes in consumer behaviour and their attitudes towards ethical consumerism in this region. With the use of a semi-structured questionnaire, this pilot study presented a detailed analysis of the consumer attitudes towards ethical consumerism in relation to their socioeconomic class levels in this region, the public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico were thus determined. It is hoped that this knowledge provides the basis for the initiation of a framework of activities and measures to develop sustainable consumption habits and to educate consumers on the subject of ethical consumption.
- Removal of heavy metal chromium from tannery effluent using ultrafiltration membrane April 1, 2016 12:00 amAbstract The present study was aimed to fabricate a novel ultrafiltration membrane using cellulose acetate, nanochitosan, and polyethylene glycol of ratio 1:2:2 by phase inversion method. Analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed to characterize the prepared membrane. FTIR and XRD results revealed the formation of blended membrane with increased amorphous nature. SEM studies exhibited the rough surface with numerous pores. The prepared membrane was also characterized for its ultrafiltration performance by membrane compaction, pure water flux, water content, and porosity. The results showed that the membrane obtained a pure water flux of 25.32 l/m2 h. The water content was found to be 24 % and a high porosity of 83 % was obtained which showed the membrane’s high hydrophilicity and more porous nature. The main focus of the present study was toxic hexavalent chromium removal from tannery effluent using the prepared hydrophilic membrane, which causes various adverse effects. The effect of pH of the solution (viz., pH 5, 7, and 9), membrane thickness (0.1 and 0.2 mm), and the applied pressure (50 and 100 kPa) were studied which are the key factors in determining the efficiency of the prepared membrane in remediation of tannery effluent. The results showed high percentage removal of chromium at pH 7 using 0.2 mm thickness at 100 kPa. The physicochemical parameters of the tannery effluent were also found to be reduced.
- Colour removal using nanoparticles March 31, 2016 12:00 amAbstract Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized and used to decolourize dye effluent. C. I. Reactive Blue 21 was taken as a reference dye, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a stabilizer to prevent agglomeration of nanoparticles. Characterization of nanoparticles was done by a laser light scattering particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various parameters like pH, dye concentration, nanoparticle concentration, alkali addition, salt addition and duration studied for dye decolourization. To confirm the attachment of degraded products of dye on the nanoparticles, FT-IR analysis was done. About 98 % colour removal with simultaneous reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved.
- Nanoscale zero-valent iron-impregnated agricultural waste as an effective biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater March 15, 2016 12:00 amAbstract A novel, nanoscale zero-valent iron-impregnated cashew nut shell (NZVI-CNS) was synthesized towards the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution using impregnation procedure. The factors affecting Ni(II) ion adsorption in a batch mode were studied including the initial metal ion concentration, solution pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics could be described well with Freundlich and pseudo first-order, respectively. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for the removal of Ni(II) ions was found to be 70.05 mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the removal of Ni(II) ions by the NZVI-CNS was spontaneous, feasible, and exothermic in nature. The amount of adsorbent needed to treat the known volume of the effluent was calculated by using single-stage batch adsorber design. The experimental results specifies that the NZVI-CNS have a high adsorption capacity for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.
- Sustainable processes for pre-treatment of cotton fabric March 11, 2016 12:00 amAbstract Simple and sustainable reuse and recycle strategies were investigated with the intention of assessing ways to curb water consumption in the textile wet processing. Textile pre-treatment involves desizing, scouring and bleaching processes. Each process requires a plethora of chemicals along with water, out of which the unexhausted chemicals are drained in the effluent stream. Conventionally, 7.3 % alkali and 6.9 % hydrogen peroxide are utilised in the scouring and bleaching process. Attempts were made to reutilise the unexhausted 92.7 % alkali and 93.1 % hydrogen peroxide from the scouring and bleaching process. After recycling the scouring and bleaching process bath three times, effluent still contained 55 % alkali and 67.5 % hydrogen peroxide which was reused to desize a new grey fabric. The fabric properties like Tegewa rating, absorbency and whiteness were found to be better than the conventional enzyme desized fabric. The desized fabrics were then subjected to dyeing using reactive dyes Yellow HE6G and Navy Blue HER, where analogous dyeing and fastness properties were obtained when compared with fresh water samples. Economical feasibility has been calculated considering a production of 1 ton of fabric/day. It was observed that 83 % water and 74 % energy were conserved per ton of processed fabric which contributes to a saving of around 1 lac INR/ton.
- Application of Terminalia chebula natural dye on wool fiber—evaluation of color and fastness properties January 26, 2016 12:00 amAbstract In the present study, Terminalia chebula (Myrobalan/Harda) natural dye extract was used for the development of eco-friendly shades on woolen yarn with different hues and tones. The effect of dye concentration on color strength (K/S) of woolen yarn dyed with T. chebula was assessed. Increasing the concentration of dye decreased lightness (L*) values of woolen yarn samples, indicating darker shades. Different metal salts such as alum, ferrous sulfate, and stannous chloride were used to enhance the fastness properties (light, wash, dry and wet rubs) of dyed woolen yarn. Pre-treatment of woolen yarn samples with metal salts has shown encouraging results with better fastness properties and enhanced color strength values. Five percent ferrous sulfate mordanted samples show greater saturation with increasing dye concentration from 0.5 to 15 % (o.w.f.). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of T. chebula dye extract shows presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl functionalities.
- The true value of materials: BRIDGE (Building Research and Innovation Deals for the Green Economy) September 2, 2015 12:00 amAbstract Assessing the value of materials, lifecycle and applications was central to the European Union INTERREG IV project BRIDGE (Building Research and Innovation Deals for the Green Economy) 2011–2014. Here, the complex philosophies of sustainability (protection of people, profit and planet) underpinned innovation, knowledge transfer, data visualization and design thinking, to develop green entrepreneurs, and market differentiation in Southern England and Northern France Channel regions. The model followed transdisciplinary collaborative research methods resulting in ‘green best practice’, which was visualized and disseminated extensively via digital technologies, mixed media and exhibitions. Information generated by the research was debated and shared at cross-channel conferences, business-to-business, incubation events, workshops and research exchange visits focussing on two materials: textiles and wood, sourced in the UK and France. Partners came from universities, regional authorities, non-governmental organisations and business communities to discuss the economic, environmental and societal value of these regional materials and innovative proofs of concept, eco and sustainable design products, processes, services and material experiments were generated from this collaborative peer learning, community of practice approach. More sustainable proof of concept products and systems were developed by knowledgeable practitioners which embody an understanding of green business, where the philosophical rationales and complexity of ethics, climate change and waste issues, for example, were communicated through materials and objects to expert and non-expert audiences and consumers. This embodiment and honest communication of knowledge in a product is a unique selling point, creating market value and consumer differentiation through narrative. Stakeholders exchanged complex data, methods and ideas towards developing green employment opportunities, informing a research theme for UK and EU funders to the year 2020 and beyond. This is a descriptive narrative on the evolvement of the project which enables incisive, reflective and theoretical analysis to take place simultaneously in other publishing areas to assess the longer term impact and value of BRIDGE in subsequent transdisciplinary projects. This work contributes to literature on value and use of materials with a focus on collaboration, design, innovation, applied research and societal benefit to develop green employment.
- Systems thinking in designing automotive textiles August 7, 2015 12:00 amAbstract We present the complexities in terms of designing automotive exterior seating materials (seat coverings and interior linings) at Sage Automotive Interiors (UK), which is a division of a global international automotive textile supplier with headquarters in the US. Sustainability and innovation are emphasized in documents communicating the company’s vision. Using a case study approach, we consider the current design, development and manufacture process and examine it for the potential for feedback loops, identify potential leverage points to effect change and how the process could divert wastes from disposal. We will highlight where sustainable decisions can be incorporated and the difficulties in achieving true sustainability. We argue that a systems approach is needed from conception to final product to ensure economic recycling of textiles and fibres used in automotive seating. Without which, the reality is at best incineration for energy and/or landfill, thus losing important, finite resources forever from a diminishing resource pool of raw materials.
- Effects of biopolishing on the quality of cotton fabrics using acid and neutral cellulases July 20, 2015 12:00 amAbstract The aims of the study were to analyze the treatment conditions for the use of acid and neutral cellulase enzymes and evaluate the changes in the various properties of the treated fabrics. In this study, biopolishing was carried out on bleached fabric using acid cellulase (Mega PK) and neutral cellulase (Mega L-1009D) considering three factors: concentration (0.5, 1, and 1.5 %), temperature (45, 55, and 65 °C), and time (40, 50, and 60 min). Changes in the physical properties such as weight loss, strength loss, pilling resistance, abrasion resistance (mass loss), and bending length of the biopolished fabrics were measured. Using Mega PK, weight loss and strength loss were found within 0.25 to 1.42 % and 1.7 to 24.7 %, respectively, while these values were found within 0.20 to 1.22 % and 1.5 to 18.9 %, respectively, using Mega L. On the other hand, pilling and abrasion resistance of the fabrics were improved due to biopolishing. In addition, bending length was found maximum 31.62 % lower than the untreated bleached fabric using Mega PK and 44.26 % lower using Mega L. It was also concluded that 1 % Mega PK showed better results when applied at 55 °C for 40 min, whereas 1 % Mega L showed better results when applied at 55 °C for 50 min among all the treatment conditions.
- Materials and manufacturing environmental sustainability evaluation of apparel product: knitted T-shirt case study July 17, 2015 12:00 amAbstract In this paper, evaluation of base materials and manufacturing environmental sustainability of selected branded T-shirt products made by Bangladesh is presented. The study is based on performing various eco-friendliness tests for the product base materials and evaluation though a standard tool named Higg Index. For this study, selected apparel branded T-shirt products from renowned brand, namely B, C, D, E, and F, and a researcher-developed BUTex-Innovation brand A are taken into consideration. Better environmental sustainability results, i.e., higher score, is obtained by A, B, C, and D branded T-shirts, but local branded product of E and F resulted in poor environmental sustainability with lower scores in terms of product eco-friendliness tests and High Index assessment tool. Besides, many weaknesses and opportunities for improvement of environmental sustainability in materials and manufacturing stages are identified and suggested to lead the textiles and clothing sectors towards sustainable growth.