When we think about silk, we only really think of its use in the textile industry, but the natural protein fibre can also be a valuable contribution to science and engineering. The hairline threads are often overshadowed by synthetic man-made fibres despite the the outstanding properties silk has. Insect spun silk is stronger than steel, lightweight and flexible.
Researchers in Germany have taken inspiration from the lacewing – an insect which lays its eggs on stalks made of silk with a high tensile strength. Now the University of Bayreuth has constructed a special gene sequence which enables bacteria to produce the silk protein. They are working on ways to produce the protein in large quantities by using biotechnology. Their aim is to use the material in the future as a high-grade rigid fiber, for example, in lightweight plastics in transportation technology. It can also be used in medical technology as a biocompatible silk coating on implants.
Lacewings are insects which are already being used by farmers to combat aphids. To protect their offspring, lacewings lay their eggs on very fine but extremely resilient silk stalks. It then creates a thread which hardens in the air within a few seconds securing the egg under the leaf. In order to produce these impressive fibers, the green lacewing excretes a protein secretion onto the leaf. The threads are finer than human hair, but they are strong enough to support the weight of the egg even when the leaf is turned over.
The Fraunhofer IAP which is heading the project researches and develops polymer applications. It supports companies and partners in the customised development and optimisation of: innovative and sustainable materials, processing aids and processes. In addition to characterising polymers, the institute also produces and processes polymers in an environmental-friendly and cost-effective way on a laboratory and pilot plant scale.
A team led by Professor Thomas Scheibel from the Chair of Biomaterials at the University of Bayreuth conducted the preliminary molecular-biological work. They constructed a special gene sequence which enables bacteria to produce the silk protein. Martin Schmidt is now optimising the manufacturing process at the Fraunhofer IAP so that the silk protein can be produced inexpensively on an industrial scale. After this step it will be possible to develop the material.
“Unlike most other types of silk, the green lacewing’s egg stalk has a special structure with fascinating mechanical properties… We would like to transfer these special properties to fibres made from this silk. However, until now it has not been possible to produce this type of silk protein in sufficient quantities and purities,” explains Martin Schmidt, biotechnologist at the Fraunhofer IAP in Potsdam-Golm.
“This special property makes it interesting for medical technology and as a reinforcement fiber in lightweight engineering, for example in cars, airplanes or ships. We are pleased to be working in partnership with the Fraunhofer IAP, which is able to lend its expertise to this project in every area – from the development of the silk material to the finished fibre,“ explains Dr. Lin Römer, scientific director of AMSilk. The project is being funded by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR), a project management organisation of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture.
For 25 years the Fraunhofer IAP has specialised in the development and characterisation of fibers and fiber-reinforced composites for lightweight engineering and in the development of biobased polymers. At the institute’s own spinning plant, technical fibers can be manufactured on an industrial scale either from a solution or a melt. “Combining biotechnology and polymer research under one roof creates ideal conditions to produce fibers made from green lacewing silk. This is an enormous advantage for the development of innovative fields of application,“ says Schmidt.
*This story first appeared on Bio-Based World News
It may surprise you that 95 per cent of all textiles thrown away across the globe each year could be recycled. With this in mind, in 2013 H&M launched the world’s biggest retail garment collecting system. Since then the high-street retailer have introduced new collections which contain 20 per cent recycled cotton from their garment collecting programme. There was more exciting news from the press room yesterday as H&M have just announced an exclusive 2017 Conscious Collection using Bionic material – a recycled polyester from recovered shoreline waste.
Additionally, this week Emily O’Dowd spoke to Mattias Bodin, a Sustainability Business Expert for Materials and Innovations at H&M. He explained that the company have been very early contributors to the sustainable economy. In this interview, Mattias provides an insight into his role and his 14 years of experience with the company, along with some of the solutions that H&M have been making to improve their sustainability performance. He is just one of 200 employees looking to explore how this retail giant can improve their sustainability targets. With the ethos, affordability meets responsibility, H&M believe that “looking good should do good too.”
H&M (Hennes & Mauritz) is a Swedish multinational clothing corporation identitfied on the high-street for its fast fashion in 62 countries across the world. It is the second largest global retailer. But as more of us are becoming aware, the textile industry is the second most polluting industry in the world. This negative media attention has meant that retailers like @hm are finding solutions across the supply chain to make their businesses more environmentally friendly. Mattias informs @Bio_BasedWorld that H&M was one of the first clothing retailers to set the benchmark for sustainable business. So in 2013 they launched a garment collecting initiative in an attempt to change some of their customers’ mindsets as well as their attitude towards recycling textiles. As part of the scheme, a shopper can donate second-hand clothes to H&M in any UK store and they will receive a £5 voucher or a 15% discount in participating European shops.
H&M then sells the donated clothes onto I:CO (I Collect) a Swiss based recycling start-up who sells the garments onto second-hand or vintage markets. The clothes in poor condition are then converted for other use or upcycled into textile fibres. Like most other retailers, the company does not own any factories but works with independent suppliers instead.
What are the challenges?
Unfortunately, the amount of textile recyclers in the market to promote this activity are very few and far between. Whilst, many polyester manufacturers will now offer recycled polyester, the uptake of other recycled textiles remains small. Additionally, the textile industry is lacking essential technological advancements to convert unwanted fabrics into their natural fibres. The only method at the moment – mechanical recycling, is still costly and far from perfect. It looks highly unrealistic that clothing will become 100 per cent recyclable any time soon. Despite this, since H&M launched the initiative, 32,000 tonnes of garments have been recycled and reused amounting to the production of 100 million t-shirts. So any step, however small in this polluting industry is a step in the right direction.
H&M’s brand new Conscious Exclusive range
H&M are excited to announce their new Conscious range which is hoping to change the stigma towards environmentally friendly fashion. The collection will be available in 160 stores worldwide and online from April 2017. But for the first time in the high-street fashion history, H&M have designed bold statement dresses made from recovered plastic from shorelines. The Bionic Yarn is soft and adaptable, flexible enough to make anything from jeans to cocktail dresses.
“For the design team at H&M, this year’s Conscious Exclusive is a chance to dream and create pieces that are both quirky and beautiful. It’s great to be able to show just what is possible with sustainable materials like we have done with the delicate plissé dress made of BIONIC,” Pernilla Wohlfahrt, H&M’s Head of Design and Creative Director. In addition to a full collection for women and relaxed formal wear for men, the collection will for the first time include kids’ pieces, as well as a Conscious Exclusive fragrance made from organic oils.
Conscious Exclusive is the drive in H&M’s move towards a more sustainable fashion future. Across all of H&M’s product ranges, 20 per cent are now made from more sustainable materials (2015), with the aim each year to increase the share. H&M is one of the world’s biggest users of recycled polyester and one of the biggest buyers of organic cotton. The goal for cotton is that it is to be 100 per cent sustainably sourced by 2020.
The Journey of a Dress. New for the 2017 H&M Conscious Exclusive collection is the material bionic
To find out more, Mattias provides a personal account of his experience with H&M and how we can all help to improve the future of the textile industry.
Mattias Bodin will be a guest speaker at this year’s Bio-Based Live conference in partnership with the University of Amsterdam.
Emily O’Dowd (EOD): What first led you to your role with H&M?
Mattias Bodin (MB): Environmental issues have always interested me. I studied a chemical engineering degree at university and I hadn’t even considered working in the textile industry before. It wasn’t until a friend of mind told me that H&M were looking to fill a chemist vacancy that I conducted further research into the company and the textile industry as a whole. I came to the conclusion that there are some big environmental challenges within the industry, so I
wanted to be part of finding solutions. Since then I have been with the company for 14 years working with sustainablity concerning chemicals, product safety, regulatory and the supply chain. Last year, I changed roles within the company so now I have an even broader focus on the environment.
EOD: How has H&M’s sustainability focus changed over the 14 years that you have been with the company?
MB: H&M was very early to begin working with sustainable materials, but during the last 14 years it has become a very important topic on everyone’s agenda. Consumers are more informed today the industry’s efforts have increased drastically and our knowledge has improved. I believe we are in a position to be an important change-maker to really contribute and make a difference to the sustainable industry.
EOD: What do you enjoy most about your role?
MB: For me, I think H&M’s resources and their strong commitment to sustainability is very important. It not only helps our production process, but it also has the potential to make an impact in the industry as a whole. Additionally, the company’s management team have a long-term view when it comes to improving our environmental efforts. This means we are more successful when it comes to implementing longstanding solutions.
EOD: What is the biggest challenge that you have faced in the industry?
MB: I think at the moment it is a combination of two things – investment and commitment. Our biggest challenge has been sourcing and testing new materials. When they need to be produced on a large scale it means that more investment is needed to develop a new material or process. As a result, this can be a barrier for the textile industry.
EOD: What advice would you give for someone starting work in the sustainable/bio-based industry?
MB: I would say that it is very difficult to do it yourself. You need to look for opportunities to work with other like-minded individuals, companies or organisations. At H&M, we even like to work with our competitors to help each other’s confidence and improve all of our positions when we are working with the supply chain.
EOD: When you say that you are collaborating with your competitors, what sort of competitors are they?
MB: In my case it would be other retailers, because we are all sharing the same challenges. Therefore, it is better if we come to new solutions together.
EOD: What single change would help develop sustainable industry further?
MB: I think that consumer understanding is key. If we can get concrete examples to show the number of possibilities of how unwanted clothes can be turned into new garments, I think this would really help consumers engage and contribute to the sustainable economy. If materials were better bench-marked to help both the consumer and the producer make informed decisions we would see even bigger changes in the industry. Recycling technologies also need to develop to enable a circular economy.
EOD: Where do you hope to see H&M in 5 years’ time?
MB: We are already in a position to be change-makers in this industry, so I would like us to continue leading this change. Additionally, I would like to see us using more recycled and sustainably sourced materials in our manufacturing processes. Bio-synthetics are also developing, so I hope that these will become a natural component for all retailers to use in the textile industry.
EOD: How successful has the garment clothing collection been?
MB: Since launching this initiative a couple of years ago, many fabrics have become new products that we now sell in store. We are however still in the process of improving our technology because there is a lot of potential here. It would be a real success if we could upcycle as much of the fabric as possible. We appear to be only one of the retail companies actively pushing this so we hope this will eventually work in our favour. After all, it has the potential to benefit the consumer, the sustainable supply chain and ultimately the environment.
EOD: Thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule to talk to Bio-Based World News today Mattias; we wish you success with the new launch of H&M’s Conscious range!
*This story first appeared on Bio-based World News
We are all aware that millions of tons worth of plastic waste is washed up on shores across the world endangering marine animals and polluting our waters. In a recently study, 40 million pounds of plastic was left floating in the North Pacific Ocean alone. These facts were enough to encourage the iconic adidas sportswear fashion brand to work alongside Ocean Parley which is an environmental group raising awareness for pollution in our oceans. This partnership has delivered some exciting news which has seen the production of 7,000 pairs of trainers made from ocean waste. But this is not all, they have also created the first football jersey made from upcycled marine debris which was debuted by Mayern Munich and Real Madrid earlier this month.
This long-term partnership was first initiated in 2015 when adidas ( @adidas ) saw the importance in creating a new future for the sporting and fashion industry. adidas is a multinational corporation with a huge influence over sportswear. It is the largest sports clothing manufacturer in Europe and the second largest in the world. Having this sort of influence meant that more could be done to develop innovative new products with sustainable solutions. In a statement in 2015 Eric Liedtke, adidas’ Group Executive Board Member responsible forglobal brands said: “The conservation of the oceans is a cause that is close to my heart and those of many employees at the adidas Group. By partnering with Parley for the Oceans ( @parleyxxx ) we are contributing to a great environmental cause. We co-create fabrics made from Ocean Plastic waste which we will integrate into our product.”
The first fashion initiative was designed by the London designer Alexander Taylor. adidas’ exclusive trainers have the identical manufacturing process as their existing footwear but the process replaces synthetic fibres with yarns made from recycled Parley Ocean plastic. The knitted upper section of the shoe is made from 95% ocean plastic and 5% recycled polyester. In a unique design inspired by the ocean’s movement, a green wave pattern is created from recycled grill net and recycled into the fibre. The rest of the trainer is formed using waste plastic collected from around the Maldives where the government is collaborating with Parley to extract the plastic waste over the next five years. At a price of £178 (€200), the shoes, which contain 11 plastic bottles, will appear in adidas’ stores next month.
This is not all the companies have been producing. Earlier this month, they debuted their latest football jersey tops made from up-cycled marine plastic debris. The adidas Parley football jerseys will be worn commercially for the first time when Bayern Munich faced Hoffenheim November 5 and again when Real Madrid competed with Real Sporting de Gijón November 26. Made from Parley Ocean Plastic, the water-based environmentally friendly prints, the all-white Real Madrid and all-red Bayern Munich kits feature the club logo, three stripes and sponsors’ logos in the same colour as the kit for a unique look.
Eric Liedtke, adidas Group Executive Board member responsible for Global Brands, said: “This represents another step on the journey of adidas and Parley for the Oceans. We have not only managed to make footwear from recycled ocean plastic, but have also created the first jersey coming 100% out of the ocean. But we won’t stop there. We will make one million pairs of shoes using Parley Ocean Plastic in 2017 – and our ultimate ambition is to eliminate virgin plastic from our supply chain.”
So What Sustainable Targets have adidas Outlined for 2017?
Their latest target will see at least eleven million bottles retrieved from coastal areas by the Parley Global Clean-up Network which will be recycled and re-purposed into elite performance sportswear. Next year the collaboration hope to create another million pairs of trainers. This plan forms part of a larger commitment by the brand to increase the use of sustainable materials in its products and to make eco-innovation the new industry standard as well as ending the cycle of marine plastic pollution in the long term.
“At this point, it’s no longer just about raising awareness. It’s about taking action and implementing strategies that can end the cycle of plastic pollution for good. Eco innovation is an open playing field. With the release of the Ocean Plastic jerseys and UltraBOOST Uncaged adidas x Parley shoes, we’re inviting every consumer, player, team and fan to own their impact under Parley A.I.R. and define their role within the movement,” said Cyrill Gutsch, Founder, Parley for the Oceans.
*This story first appeared on Bio-Based World News